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== Java Runtime Enviroment (JRE)
== Java Runtime Enviroment (JRE) ==
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apt-get install sun-java5-plugin
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== Basic Unix Commands ==

Home page http://www.lucasmanual.com

TableOfContents(2) Keywords: Debian GNU Linux, Manual, How To, How-To, Installation, Configuration, Easy, From Windows XP to Debian, Wireless WPA2, anti-spam, fax, Documentation, MoinMoin Wiki.

Debian Services

Installing and Configuring Postfix on Debian

  • Install postfix (this will remove exim since there can't be two mail systems)(If you have a website, choose internet site if configurations will ask):

apt-get install postfix
  • Check the log mail.log, mail.err, mail.info, mail.warn to see if postfix runs.

cat /var/log/mail.log
  • Configure: Now add your domain to config files, so others can't abuse your mailsystem. We do it with postconf

postconf -e "myorgin = example.com"
  • Now add your hostname (computer name). Use command "hostname" if not sure. It will show you your hostname.

postconf -e "myhostname=server1.example.com"
  • Now add domain name that your system will handle.

postconf -e "relay_domains = example.com, example2.com, example3.com"
  • Reload Postfix Server:

postfix reload
  • Let's test our mailserver. Type

telnet localhost 25
  • You should see:

Connected to localhost.localdomain.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 server1.example.com ESMTP Postfix (Debian/GNU)
  • Now sent an email to yourself:

mail from:<you@youremail.com>
rcpt to:<user@example.com>
To: user@example.com
From: you@youremail.com
Subject: Hey my first email
This is my first email on debian postfix after installing configuring it.
It was easy. See you
  • Now to end data hit enter, type in a dot, and hit enter again:

  • Then

  • Your are done. you can type "mail" and see if you have some.
    • Now let's get to next step:
    • If you have a router with firewall you will need to enable port 25 and forward that port to your computer.
    • You will need to enter your MX records in your domain provider. (ex. godaddy.com, or dnspark.com)
    • Check your mx records: go to http://www.dnsstuff.com/ locate "DNS lookup". From pulldown menu select "MX". Type in your domain name (ex. example.com). You should see some records there. If you don't see any MX records go back to previus step. You have to have MX record otherwise other computers won't be able to see you when sending emails.

    • Usefull commands:

qshape deferred
postsuper -r ALL   (requeue all emails)
  • You should be set. If your isp is blocking the traffic then you might need to do the following:

Debian Postfix and smtp.sbcglobal.yahoo.com

apt-get postfix-tls libsasl2-modules
  • ADD to main.cf by using postconf. Just type:

postconf -e "relayhost = [smtp.sbcglobal.yahoo.com]"
postconf -e "smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes"
postconf -e "smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd"
postconf -e "smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous"
  • Create a file called sasl_passwd in /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd. Inside type in

[smtp.sbcglobal.yahoo.com] username@sbcglobal.net:mypassword
  • Now change permisions so others can't read it:

chmod 600 /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
  • Now postmap it. (creates database-like file so postfix can read it)

postmap /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
  • Restart postfix

postfix reload
  • Done. You can use "mutt" to sent emails outside. Check /var/log/mail.log to see if everything is working.

Mailman with Postfix

  • Install mailman:

apt-get install mailman
  • When done type:

newlist mailman
  • Start mailman

/etc/init.d/mailman start

relay_domains = example.com, lists.example.com
  • In same file add ,hash:/var/lib/mailman/data/aliases after alias_maps

alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases,hash:/var/lib/mailman/data/aliases
  • Now type:

postconf -e "transport_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/transport"
postconf -e "mailman_destination_recipient_limit = 1"
  • In /etc/postfix/master.cf add:

mailman unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
   flags=FR user=list
   argv=/var/lib/mailman/bin/postfix-to-mailman.py ${nexthop} ${user}
  • Edit or create /etc/postfix/transport. Add this line:

lists.example.com    mailman:
  • Then postmap it:

postmap /etc/postfix/transport
  • Now edit /etc/mailman/mm_cfg.py and add:

MTA = 'Postfix'
DEB_LISTMASTER = 'postmaster@example.com'
POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAIN = ['lists.example.com']
  • Done. Now restart postfix, mailman

/etc/init.d/postfix reload
/etc/init.d/mailman restart
  • Create a mailing list:

newlist list_name
  • If you want archives add this to /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

Alias /pipermail/ /var/lib/mailman/archives/public/
Alias /images/mailman/ /usr/share/images/mailman/
  • Done. Go to


[Optional] If you want to move your mailman to a new server here is how you do it. MailmanTransfer

Ampache (Music Server) on Debian

  • Ampache the music server.
  • We need apache and php. If this is not installed we need to install it. do "apt-cache policy apache2" to see if it is installed. (apache 1 will work too)

apt-get install apache2
apt-get install php5 php5-mysql php5-gd
  • Download ampache and extract it

wget http://www.ampache.org/downloads/current.tar.gz
tar -xzvf current.tar.gz
  • Move the extracted ampache folder to the correct folder (change the version number to match yours):

mv ampache-3.3-beta4 /usr/local/bin/ampache
cd /usr/local/bin/ampache
  • Change permissions so the apache server can read ampache files

chown -R www-data:www-data /usr/local/bin/ampache
  • Create and edit ampache file for apache(the webserver). This will tell apache2 about ampache: "/etc/apache2/conf.d/ampache":

Alias /ampache "/usr/local/bin/ampache/"
<directory />
       DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
       Options Indexes MultiViews
       AllowOverride None
       Order allow,deny
       Allow from all

* Optional, you could change Alias from /ampache "/usr/local/bin/ampache/" to something like

Alias /musiclover "/usr/local/bin/ampache/"
  • Restart apache

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • Now apache needs mysql. If you have one go to next step. Otherwise install it:

apt-get install mysql-server
  • set mysql server password: mysqladmin -u root password NEWPASSWORD'

  • Almost done. Now go to this link and follow directions.(enter your database password and press install.)

  • Done. Enjoy
  • When you add music. www-data needs to be able to read your music. So you need to add www-data to group permissions. This can be done by:

chgrp -R www-data /path/to/mymusic/*
  • or in my case i created group users

addgroup users
chgrp -R users path/to/mymusic/*
adduser www-data users
  • Done. Amapche uses around 20kb of bandwith per stream per user.

Mod Python and PSP

  • Installing python scripting pages with mod python on debian and apache2

apt-get update
apt-get install libapache2-mod-python
  • Module should be enabled, to check type:

a2enmod mod_python
  • Enable psp support by adding following in /etc/apache2/httpd.conf :

AddHandler mod_python .psp .psp_
PythonHandler mod_python.psp
  • Your final httpd.conf should look something like this:

<Directory "/var/www/pspwebsite/folder">
 AddHandler mod_python .psp .psp_
 PythonHandler mod_python.psp
 PythonDebug On
 Options Indexes MultiViews
 AllowOverride None
 Order allow,deny
 Allow from all
 DirectoryIndex index.psp
  • Save the file and reload apache:

/etc/init.d/apache2 reload
  • Done enjoy.

MoinMoin Wiki with Apache2 and Mod Python

  1. Apache2 and mod_python should be installed by now. If not do

apt-get update
apt-get install apache2
apt-get install libapache2-mod-python

Now Install moinmoin wiki.

apt-get install python-moinmoin
mkdir /var/www/mywiki
cp -r /usr/share/moin/data /usr/share/moin/underlay /usr/share/moin/server/moin.cgi /var/www/mywiki
chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/mywiki
  1. Configure apache2
  2. Add the following lines to /etc/apache2/conf.d/wiki:

 Alias /wiki/ "/usr/share/moin/htdocs/"

 <Location /mywiki>
 SetHandler python-program
 PythonPath "['/var/www/mywiki','/etc/moin/']+sys.path"
 PythonHandler MoinMoin.request::RequestModPy.run
 PythonDebug On
  1. Reload apache2

 /etc/init.d/apach2 reload
  1. Configure Moinmoin
  2. Edit /etc/moin/farmconfig.py. You have 2 options.

 wikis = [
           ("mywiki",    r"^yoursite.com/mywiki/.*$"),


wikis = [
    ("mywiki",  r".*"),   # this is ok for a single wiki
  1. Also, in /etc/moin/farmconfig.py comment out data_dir and data_underlay_dir (we need those defined separately for each wiki)
  2. [Check] See if /etc/moin/mywiki.py exists. If it does go ahead and edit it. If not copy this file to mywiki.py

 # cp /etc/moin/moinmaster.py /etc/moin/mywiki.py
  1. Then edit /etc/moin/mywiki.py

 sitename = u'MyWiki' # [Unicode]
 data_dir = '/var/www/mywiki/data'
 data_underlay_dir = '/var/www/mywiki/underlay'
  1. Comment out data_dir if it is somewhere else in a file 1.Reload apache

/etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload
  • 1.[Done] Enjoy your new wiki at http://yoursite.com/mywiki/

  • [Optional]If you want your default website to go to mywiki right away. Edit /etc/apache2/sites-available/default, and where you see RedirectMatch do

#RedirectMatch ^/$ /apache2-default/
RedirectMatch ^/$ /mywiki/
  • [Optional]If you would like to enable file attachment add this to /etc/moin/mywiki.py, right below previous changes. Namely right under data_underlay

allowed_actions = ['AttachFile']

Debian Anti-Spam Anti-Virus Gateway Email Server


Fax Server


Network Time Synchronization

NetworkTime aka the NTP Date

FTP Server


Photo Album Server

  • Photo album gallery server.


Domain Controller, Samba


VMware Server On Debian

  • Very good how-to which didn't require from me any additional configuration to install vmware on debian and then windows xp as a guest os is here:


Kernel Upgrade

  • On an upgrade when your kernel has been updated you need to download the kenel headers and reconfigure vmware.

apt-get update
apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r)

Debian Configuration

Change from dhcp to static ip

  • edit /etc/network/interfaces
  • comment iface eth0 inet dhcp and below type :

iface eth0 inet static
  • Your file should look like:

#iface eth0 inet dhcp
iface eth0 inet static
  • or

iface eth0 inet static

Multimedia player and codec on debian


deb http://gulus.usherbrooke.ca/pub/distro/debian/debian-multimedia/ stable main
  • Now install xine(movie player) and xmms(mp3 player):

apt-get update
apt-get install xine-ui
apt-get install xmms
  • Now install windows file format .wmv support:

apt-get install w32codecs
  • If you would like to be able to read dvds install libdvdcss2

apt-get update
apt-get install libdvdcss2
  • Done. You can remove the mirror we just entered from source list if you wish to do so.

Mount Windows Share

  • You need to have smbfs installed. If you don't do this:

apt-get update
apt-get install smbfs
  • To mount windows share drive you need to create a folder:

mkdir somefolder
  • As root or with root privilages (su root or sudo)

mount -t smbfs -o username=administrator,password=password
//windowsservername/folder /home/lucas/somefolder

If you don' want the password to show up you could do

mount -t smbfs -o username=administrator //windowsservername/folder /home/lucas/somefolder

[Optional] You can replace administrator with your username. You can also replace windowsservername with ip address // ....

Add a network card

  • See if your card is in a list.

lspci -v
  • Add a network card by a hardware number. Replace 00:00:..:00 with your harware number. It should be 16 characters.

ifconfig eth1 hw erher 00:00:..:00 uo

Raid 1 Setup


Power Users


  • If sudo command is not installed, install it.

apt-get update
apt-get install sudo
  • Then run visudo

  • Copy root ALL=(ALL) ALL and paste it right below. Then change root to your user name on the pasted line.

yourusername    ALL=(ALL) ALL

Disable ssh root access

  • Edit file sshd_config file

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  • On a line where you see Permit root login change it to no

PermitRootLogin no
  • Restart or reload ssh

/etc/init.d/ssh force-reload
  • This will prevent other users from trying to get guess your password. 100s of lines on your system that look:

Security Events
Feb  5 07:21:15 localhost sshd[8586]: Failed password for root from xx.xx.xx.xx port 60618 ssh2
Feb  5 07:21:15 localhost sshd[8588]: Failed password for root from xx.xx.xx.xx port 60637 ssh2

AWStats on Debian

  • Install AWStats

apt-get update
apt-get awstats

Configure the apache2 for awstats

  • Copy configuration file for apache2.

cp /usr/share/doc/awstats/examples/apache.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/awstats
  • Then edit /etc/awstats/awstats.conf file and make sure the file contains (double check the apache2 word)



  • Change a permission on apache log file

chmod o+r /var/log/apache2/access.log
  • Make it a default that access.log has these permissions, editing the /etc/logrotate.d/apache2 and make sure it has these lines

 create 644 root adm
  • And

    /usr/lib/cgi-bin/awstats.pl -config=awstats.www.mysite.org.conf  -update
  • Final file should look similar to :

/var/log/apache2/*.log {
        rotate 52
        create 644 root adm
            /usr/lib/cgi-bin/awstats.pl -config=awstats.conf -update        endscript
                if [ -f /var/run/apache2.pid ]; then
                       /etc/init.d/apache2 restart > /dev/null
  • Reload apache

/etc/init.d/apache2 reload
  • And visit:

http://localhost/cgi-bin/awstats.pl?config=awstat.conf or http://www.mysite.com/cgi-bin/awstats.pl?config=awstat.conf [Optional]

  • To make it easier to remember the address you can edit /etc/apache2/conf.d/awstats and add this line.

RedirectMatch ^/logs /cgi-bin/awstats.pl?config=awstat.conf
  • Now you can access the awstats statistics by going to


  • Done.

Debian User Configuration

Change default editor

  • Install your editor
  • Example:

apt-get update
apt-get install vim
  • Run configuration change

update-alternatives --config editor
  • From a list pick your editor. And you are done.

Flash player

cp /home/lucas/Desktop/libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/
cd /usr/lib/iceweasel/plugins/
ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so
  • Restart Firefox/iceweasel

Java Runtime Enviroment (JRE)

You will need to add 'non-free' to your /etc/apt/source.list then do:

apt-get update
apt-get install sun-java5-jre 
apt-get install sun-java5-plugin
  • If you want you can take away 'non-free' when done, and do apt-get update

Debian Printing


Laptop and Debian

Intel ipw2200 wireless card

  • Due to FCC or other frequency radiation levels restrictions, we need to download firmware from: (click agree on the bottom)

  • Untar it

tar xzvf ipw2200-fw-3.0.tgz -C /lib/firmware
mv /lib/firware/ipw2200-fw-3.0/* /lib/firmware
  • Drivers come with kernel so let's install modules for ipw2200
  • Find out what is the kernel version you have.

uname -a
  • Replace 2.6.18-5-486 with the version you have.

apt-get update
apt-get install ipw2200-modules-2.6.18-5-486
apt-get install ipw2200-modules-$(uname -r)
  • Then this will tell you a list of wireless devices:

  • Done. In my case wireless card was attached to eth2

Authenticate with wpa using PSK TKIP

* Install wpasupplicant

apt-get update
apt-get install wpasupplicant

* Open /etc/network/interfaces

vi /etc/network/interfaces

*If you see "iface eth2..." add the following lines, but change ssid and password:

iface eth2 inet dhcp
wpa-ssid thisismynetworkname
wpa-key_mgmt WPA-PSK
wpa-proto WPA
wpa-pairwise TKIP
wpa-group TKIP
wpa-psk thisismypassword
wpa-dribver wext

*Exit, and now type:

ifup eth2

*Done. If you want you your wireless card to connect each time you boot your computer add this above "iface eth2.."

auto eth2


Intel Graphic card - Higher reolution

  • install 915resolution

apt-get install 915resolution
  • See what resolutions are available

915resolution -l
  • If the resolution you desire is not listed you will need to dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg and add new resolutions.

  • For example (using mode 5c (1920x1440):

sudo 915resolution 5c 1280 800 24

User Manuals

DVD9 to DVD5




Basic Unix Commands



SSH terminal connection timeout

  • If you get an error:

Read from remote host example.com: Connection reset by peer
Connection to example.com closed
  • Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add:

ClientAliveInterval 150

Dynamic MMap ran out of room

  • If you see an error like:

{{{Reading package lists... Error! E: Dynamic MMap ran out of room E: Error occurred while processing vlc (NewVersion1) }}}

apt-get update -o APT::Cache-Limit=25165824


Python and VIM

Tab and 4 spaces

  • Add this to system vimrc. /etc/vim/vimrc

set tabstop=4
set shiftwidth=4
set expandtab
set smarttab
  • In order to convert a file from a tab structure to a 4 space structure we can use this vim code. Type:


Syntax coloring

  • For specific exiting I use these two usefull commands.
  • You can place them in /etc/vim/vimrc or ~/.vimrc

filetype on
syntax on
  • The first one makes vim recognize the filetype, and the second one gives you coloring of the text.
  • Because the filetype is recognized you can use CTRL-n to do auto completion in vim.


tar -xzvf /home/lucas/Desktop/pydiction-0.5.tar.gz -C /usr/share/vim-scripts/
chown -R root:root /usr/share/vim-scripts/pydiction-0.5
chmod 755 -R /usr/share/vim-scripts/pydiction-0.5
  • Now Edit the vimrc of the system /etc/vim/vimrc and add these lines

if has("autocmd")
       autocmd FileType python set complete+=k/usr/share/vim-scripts/pydiction-0.5/pydiction isk+=.,(
endif " has("autocmd")
  • Done
  • Open some python file and on a new line type:

import xml.  press CRTL+n and you should see the available modlules
  • Here is a screen shot:


Python Manual


Create and add elements in XML

from xml.dom.minidom import parseString
  • creating new document, and root element at the same time.

doc = parseString(u'<top/>'.encode('UTF-8'))
  • print doc.toprettyxml() will show you how it looks
  • this would create:

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
  • Now we reference to our <top/> element by:

  • We create another element by:

  • Add it under our top element by:

  • Create another element and add it under element1

  • How to create a text node:

text1=doc.createTextNode(u'My first text')
  • Since we have no reference to subsection1. We start at reference to element1

  • add second subelement:

  • create next text element, and add it to subsection2

text2=doc.createTextNode(u'My second text')
  • We are working with references. To switch text in subsections, you could do:


PerlPython Phrasebook




Django Web Framework


Building Software For Industry






Dabo Application Framework


Report Writer



  • Svn is a software that manages any type of data. It monitors its changes, lets you update them, and if something went wrong you can go back to previous version with no problems.

Install svn

  • Let's install it on Debian:

apt-cache search svn
apt-get install subversion
  • Subversion is installed!

Create svn Project

  • The story goes like this: I have a project I am working on. It is located at

  • This folder includes

  • I keep my working files in trunk. I want it in subversion now!
  • We need to tell subversion where it can store its repositories:
  • It will be in

  • Now create repository directory:

svnadmin create /usr/local/src/my_best_project

Import svn project

  • Now I am going to import my_best_project to svn

svn import /home/lucas/my_best_project file:///usr/local/src/my_best_project -m "initial import"
  • Folder /home/lucas/my_best_project is not important anymore. SVN is not concerned what you are going to do with it.

Checkout svn project

  • Now we need to start working with subversion and we do that by creating a folder where we can work on my best project with subversion. It will be in /home/lucas/new_folder/ We need to go to that folder. And from that folder we issue command:

svn checkout file:///usr/local/src/my_best_project
  • Now it created

  • This folder contains files i kept in a trunk. I can now work on it and let svn take care the version tracking.

Checkout svn project via ssh

*[Optional], you could use subversion over ssh. You need to install subversion on your computer and then:

svn co svn+ssh://your.remote-server.com/usr/local/src/my_best_project
  • Done. Now its time to make that tool great.

Svn ignore files in repository

  • [Optional] You can igore files like pyc when working in subversion by using:

svn propset svn:ignore "*.pyc" myfolder/
svn propset svn:ignore "*.log" myfolder/

svn transfer- dump, load

  • Dump

svnadmin dump /path/to/repos > repos-dumpfile
  • Load

svnadmin create calc; svnadmin load calc < calc-dumpfile

svn relocate

svn switch --relocate https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/PROJECTNAME/trunk https://PROJECTNAME.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/PROJECTNAME/trunk

svn terminology

SVN Terminology

The following is a list of common terms used throughout the SourceForge.net SVN documentation:

  • SVN client: Software run by a SVN user to access the SVN server.
  • SVN repository: The SVN server stores a copy of the software and data that the project has uploaded. The server retains both the most recent version and every historical version (past changes). This copy of the software and data uploaded by the project is a SVN repository. Each project hosted on SourceForge.net has its own SVN repository.

  • Project UNIX name: The unique name the project founder selected when registering a project for hosting on SourceForge.net. This value can be located on the project summary page (e.g. https://www.sf.net/projects/PROJECTNAME/) to the right of the phrase, "Project UNIX name:".

  • Working copy: Though the SVN repository stores every version of every file that has been uploaded to the repository, when you retrieve data from the SVN repository using your SVN client, only one version of each file is saved to your hard drive. The copy of the data you get from the SVN server is called a "working copy", obtained using the "checkout" command.
  • Module: Unlike CVS, SVN has no concept of a module.
  • Trunk: Development with SVN progresses similar to that of a tree. The main development occurs against the trunk. Conceptually, it is identical to that of the trunk in CVS.
  • Branch: A split of development off of the trunk or another branch. This allows for development to diverge either permanently or temporarily for a variety of possible reasons.

Regular Expression




Useful Debian Programs

Photo and Image

* Digikam, for all your digital camera needs

apt-get update
apt-get install digikam

CD and DVD

* K3B, for burning cd/dvd.

apt-get update
apt-get install k3b

Players and Viewers


  • For Flash support you need to add contirib to your apt source list , then

apt-get update
apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

Circuit Designers

Oregano, XCircuit, KTechLab, and Qucs



Domain name with dynamic ip


Debian Documentation


Network cable RJ45


MyWiki: FrontPage (last edited 2016-10-23 19:29:09 by LukaszSzybalski)